Hello there! “Public Policy Jobs [Case of Blogging about Policy]” is not about a regular job as you know it! (Sorry! But implementing what’s it teaches can earn you a six-figure income)!
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Now look closely how the following post is organized and seeks to answer an online searcher’s purpose of “searching” (the person needs information, the post is thorough to cover what s/he is seeking for and the related supplements!)
Can you Define Public Policy?
The public policy is like the function of the brain to the body. The public policy is seen as the starting point in operations of programmes or activities that are done by the government, communities or the private sector.
Mulyadi (2015) argues that the public policy can be viewed as a continuous and related process by which the government, together with other stakeholders regulate, analyse, and manage some public affairs and human resources in order to attain a given goal. This insinuates the idea that without public policy, the government can serve the population or even solve any problem daunting the population.
Another implication is that the so-called “process” followed in any public policy has some stages. The latter as involve the narrow group in charge of a particular public policy to something tangible. The different stages of any policy making (including public ones) includes policy formulation. This is a process including problem search, problem definition, problem specification, problem sensing. Patton and Sawicki (1987:107) give seven stages in formulating any public policy:
- Think about why a given phenomenon is viewed a problem or issue;
- Precise the scope and delimit the problem that will be solved;
- Collect information and facts related to the problem to be solved;
- Formulate the goals and the target beneficiaries
- Identify the policy envelope (variables play on the problem).
- Budget costs and the benefits of the policy
- Formulate well the policy problem
The stages listed above show how a public policy derives from an existing problem. There cannot be a government agenda lest there is a problem to be solved. The problem to be solved or that requires an intervention by the government has to be a real one and that can be tracked through the seven phases to qualify as a problem worth solving by those on power through stakeholders.
What’s Policy Research
Policy research, as outlined previously, belongs to an applied research group or within the scope of social research in which the application follows the prevailing general procedures of research, accompanied by its specific properties. Simple policy research can be defined as research activities conducted to support the policy.
Because of its nature in supporting policy, this research is typical, but does not mean fetched. Ann Majchrzak (1984) defines policy research as a process for conducting research to support policies or analysis of socially fundamental social issues to help policy makers Solving by way of providing recommendations oriented to action or pragmatic behavior.
Because it is oriented to the pragmatic behaviour, then the policy researchers need to produce is not located where the scientific weight of the research results, but to the extent that the research results have applicability or Ability to solve social problems. Policy research activities begin with a thorough understanding of social problems, such as nutritional deficiencies, poverty, urban population explosion, inflation, social insecurity, and others, followed by the implementation of research.
To look for troubleshooting alternatives. The final activity of policy research is to formulate a troubleshooting recommendation to be communicated to policymakers. As well as social research or applied research, policy research is aimed at giving effect to practical actions, namely social problem solving.
Key-characteristics of Policy Research
The specificity of policy research lies in its focus, which is oriented to the action to solve unique social problems, which if not solved will give a very broad negative effect. There is no measure on the breadth or complexity of a social problem. For example, the low quality of education can be the exception of many sides that cause low quality, such as:
1. Teacher quality.
- Quality teaching learning process.
- Curriculum quality.
- Availability of educational facilities and infrastructure and learning resources.
- Quality of raw-input educational institutions.
- Environmental conditions of socio-cultural and economic.
Because policy research is oriented towards focus, the assessment or research on the low quality of education, for example, will be focused on which focus – the quality of the teacher, the quality of the teaching and learning process. If policy research is focused on the quality of the teaching learning process, for example, the focus of the study can involve a wide range of problems, such as:
- Intensity of student learning process in class;
- Intensity of student learning process outside the classroom;
- Quality teachers in teaching;
- Quality of teacher interactions with students;
- Quality of teacher interactions with students of quality network-learning networks;
- Quality menu in teaching learning process;
- Quality of co-activity and extra curricular that support core activities in educational institutions.
Types of policy evaluation
In this case William Dunn (House, 1978:45), posited some public policy evaluation Model consisting of:
- The Adversary Model
Evaluators are grouped into two, the first in charge of presenting positive program evaluation results, effective and good policy impact results, the second team played to find the results of negative program evaluation, ineffective, failed and that is not Right target. These two groups are meant to ensure neutrality as well as objectivity of the evaluation process. His findings were later assessed as an evaluation result. According to the model of this evaluation there is no data efficiency collected.
- The Transaction Model
This Model pays attention to the use of the case study method, is naturalistic and consists of two types, namely: the responsive evaluation I conducted through activities informally, re-envisioned so that the planned program can be described accurately; and Illuminativ evaluation aims to study innovativ programs in order to describe and interpret the implementation of a program or policy. So the evaluation of this model will attempt to disclose and documenter the parties participating in the program.
- Goal Free Model
This evaluation Model aims to find the actual impact of a policy, and not just to determine the expected impact according to the program set. In an effort to find actual impacts, evaluators do not need to examine extensively and in-depth about the objectives of the planned program. So the evaluators (researchers) in the position are free to assess and there is objectivity.
Types of Policy Evaluation
Evaluation of policy implementation is divided three according to evaluation timings, namely before implementation, at the time implemented, and after implemented. Specifically Dunn (2003:612-613) develops three evaluation approaches of policy implementation, whose objectives, assumptions, and main forms.
As a comparator, James P. Lester and Joseph Steward, Jr. (2000) grouped the evaluation of policy implementation into:
- Evaluation process, namely evaluation with respect to the implementation process;
- Impact evaluation, i.e. evaluation with respect to the outcome and/or influence of the implementation of the policy;
- Evaluation of policy, i.e. whether the right results are achieved reflecting the desired objectives, and
- Evaluation of Meta-evaluation with respect to the evaluation of the existing policy implementation to find certain similarities.
There are also evaluation assessments in accordance with the assessment techniques, namely:
- Comparative evaluation, i.e. comparing policy implementation (process and outcome) to the same or different policy implementation, in one or different place.
- Historical evaluation, which is to make policy evaluation based on the historical range of these policies.
- Laboratory or Experimental Evaluation, namely evaluation but using experiments placed in a type of laboratory.
- Ad Hock Evaluation, which is an evaluation that is done suddenly in the immediate time to get the picture at that time (snap shot).
James Anderson divides the evaluation (implementation) of public policy into three types, namely:
- Evaluation of public policies understood as functional activities.
- Evaluation that focuses on work policy.
- Evaluation of systematic policies that see objectively the policy programs aimed at measuring its impact on the community and the extent to which the objectives have been declared have been achieved (Winarno, 2002, p. 168).
Meanwhile, Bingham and Felbinger (in Lester & Steward, 2000) divide the policy evaluation into 4 (four) types, namely:
- Evaluation process, which focus on how the implementation of a policy.
- Impact evaluation, which focuses on the final outcome of a policy.
- Policy evaluation, which assesses policy results with the objectives planned in the policy at the time of formulated.
- Meta-Evaluation, which is an evaluation of various results or findings of evaluation of various policies related.
Howlet and Ramesh (1995) in William Dunn, there are 3 kinds of policy evaluations, namely:
1. Administrative evaluation
With respect to the evaluation of the administrative side – (1) budget, (2) efficiency, (3) cost – of the policy process within the Government that is with:
- Effort evaluation, which judging from the input side of the program developed by the policy.
- Performance evaluation, which assesses the output of the program developed by the policy.
- Adequacy of performance evaluation or effectiveness evaluation, which assesses whether the program is executed as defined.
- Efficiency Evaluation, which assesses program costs and provides an assessment of the effectiveness of such costs.
- Process Evaluation, which assesses the method used by the organization to implement the program.
2. Judicial evaluation
The evaluation is related to the issue of legal validity where the policy is implemented, including possible violations of the Constitution, legal system, ethics, rules of administration of the State, to human rights.
3. Political evaluation
The extent to which the Political Constitution was received against the public policy implemented.
Danim, S. (1997). Pengantar Studi Penelitian Kebijakan. Bumi Aksara: Jakarta.
Suharto, E. (2006a). Analisis Kebijakan Publik: Panduan Praktis Mengkaji Masalah dan Kebijakan Sosial. Bandung: Alfabeta
Hermawati, I. (2016). Matakuliah Model Evaluasi Program/Kebijakan
Hermawati, I. (2015). Matakuliah Dasar Analisis Kebijakan
Conclusion and Takeaways
In this post “Public Policy Jobs [Case of Blogging about Policy],” I was not talking about a regular job as you know it out there! Rather, I was coaching you to turn you skills about policy making into money making through blogging about policy! I have also written a sample post to show you how to write a post that is problem-solving oriented!
So, folk start earning from what you know, are good/skilled! Just take actions and don’t move to another website to end up reading 100 websites without implementing what you’re reading. Earning money from home is doable….Just take actions…Start today [tomorrow never comes].
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