How to Earn Extra Money from Home: A Career for a Psychology Degree

Hello dear all,

Today, I’m exemplifying what a psychology or psychometry teacher/student can blog about and How to earn extra money from home from doing this. However, this post is also well documented to serve researchers/students who need insights about the intelligence theory.

As researcher just needing documentation, scroll to “What's the Definition of intelligence?


If you did not know, with the right settings on, you can share online for money, Click here to learn more (sorry I can repeat it here now). But in essence, if you create Psychology related contents online (scroll to Point II. (5) in this post to see the monetization techniques) through ads display, affiliate marketing, referral programs, and paid services you will create (eBooks, webinars, one-to-one coach, skype coaching, etc.).

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Website post: Sample Number Brigre 2020/Jan 30

Title: What's the definition of intelligence?

Understanding Intelligence

The concept of intelligence raises controversy and debate is fun, especially when intelligence is measured and quantified in the form of numbers. This is because intelligence itself is an abstract concept. The term intelligence comes from the Latin word intelligence means to connect or unite each other (to organize, to relate, to bind together) (Walgoti,1997).

Intelligence, according to David Wecshler (1958), is:

 The Overall ability of individuals to think and act in a purposeful as well as processing and mastering environment effectively

Some experts describe intelligence as a skill to solve the problem. Others describe it as the ability to adapt and learn from the experiences of everyday life. When the two definitions are combined it will be found that the intelligence is the skill to solve problems and the ability to adapt to, and learn from, the experiences of everyday life. In other words, intelligence is the ability of a general nature to hold adjustment to a situation or problem. The ability of a general nature include various types of psychic abilities such as: abstract, think mechanical, mathematical, understand, remember, speak and so on.

Intelligere is the origin of the word intelligence which we are familiar, containing meaning to connect or unite each other. An English Novelist of the 20th century Aldous Huxley said that the boys were great in terms of their curiosity and intelligence. What is Huxley when he used the word "intelligence"? Intelligence is one of our most prized possessions, but even the most intelligent people even though they do not agree on what intelligence it

II. Experts’ diverse understanding of intelligence

1.  Anita E. Woolfolk argued that according to the theory-old theory, intelligence includes three senses, namely (1) the ability to learn; (2) the overall knowledge acquired; (3) the ability to adapt successfully to the new situation or the environment in general. Furthermore, Woolfolk argued that intelligence is one or several abilities to acquire and use knowledge in order to solve problems and adapt to the environment.

2.  Alfred Binet, a major figure of the pioneering measurement of intelligence with Theodore Simon, define intelligence above three components, namely (a) the ability to direct the mind or direct the action; (b) the ability to change the direction of the action when such action has been implemented and (c) the ability to criticize yourself or do auto-criticism.

3.  David Wechsler the creator of the scale-the scale of intelligence that is popular until today, defines intelligence as the aggregate or totality of a person's ability to act in a specific goal, think rationally, and to deal with its environment effectively.

Some experts describe intelligence as a skill to solve the problem (problem-solving). Others describe it as the ability to adapt and learn from the experiences of everyday life. By combining these ideas we can draw up a definition of intelligence that is fair enough: expertise to solve problems and the ability to adapt to, and learn from, the experiences of everyday life. But, even this broad definition does not satisfy everyone. Like that you will see shortly, some theorists say that the expertise of the music should be considered as part of intelligence.

Also, a definition of intelligence that is based on the theory such as the theory of Vygotsky must also enter the factor a person's ability to use the tools of culture with the help of individual that is more expert. Because intelligence is a concept that is abstract and broad, so it is not surprising if there are a lot of definitions. According to Santrock (2010; 2008) "intelligence"  is the skill of problem solving and the ability to adapt and learn from the experiences of everyday life.

Wilhelm Stern look, is the weight of the definition of intelligence lies in the ability of self-adjustment (adjustment) of a person against the problem faced. That is, the people with high intelligence (smart), will have the ability to adjust and has a prowess in the face of new problems.

In line with the opinion of Stern, Proverbs Amri also argued that intelligence is the ability to do abstraction, as well as logical thinking and quick so that it can move and adjust themselves to the new situation. Here Proverbs see there are some aspects of the ability in question, namely 1) cognitive, 2) psychomotor, and 3) the ability to affective. The third thing is called intelligence (intelligence).

While Slavin explains intelligence is one of the words that is believed to every person that they understand until you ask them to define it. At one stage, intelligence can be defined as a general aptitude for learning or the ability to learn and use the knowledge or skills.

While Howard Gardner (in Sunaryo Kartadinata, 2007: 6), defines intelligence as:

  1. The ability to solve problems that arise in real life;
  2. Ability to give birth to new problems to be solved.;
  3. Ability to set up or offer a service that is meaningful in the life of the culture specific.

More Gardner defines Intelligence as the ability to solve problems and produce products in a setting that assortment and in a real situation (1983;1993). Gardner considers, intelligence is not only ability in solving problems that are test (the theory), which is carried out in a closed room and far from the reality of the issues in the face by his environment. However intelligence is the ability to resolve a real issue, that really happened. Because according to Gardner, the new guy is said to be intelligent  if he's able to solve the environmental issues that really face him. In fact, Gardner considers, the level of productivity (creativity) can also be the size of a person's  intelligence.

III. Theories of Intelligence

Spearman argued that each individual has a General Ability (General Factor/G) and Specific Ability(Specific Factor/S). Both of these are the factors contained in intelligence, although in each of the individual factors is his character different. In line with Super and Cites, which considers intelligence is the ability to adjust themselves with the environment or learn from the experience.

Interest in intelligence is often focused on individual differences and assessment of the individual (Kaufman & Lictenberger, 2002; Lubinski, 2000; Molfse & Martin, 2001). Individual differences are the ways in which people differ from one another consistently and remain. We can talk about individual differences in terms of personality (personality) and in other fields, however intelegensilah the most attention and the most widely used to draw conclusions about differences in the ability of the pupil.

If simplified, Prof. Dr. H. Djaali in his book Psychology of Education said that the theory of intelligence according to experts is debated in these areas:

  • The Theory of Factors

==Charles Spearman to describe the structure of intelligence consists of General Ability (G) and Specific Abilities(S).

  • The Intelligence Structure Theory

==This theory is presented by Guilford. According to Guilford, the structure of intellectual abilities a person has 150 ability and it has three parameters, namely operations, product, and content.

  • The Theory of The Union Factor

==Wilhelm Stern assume intelligence is the capacity or general ability. The general capacity is growing due to the growth of the physiological or the result of learning.

  • The Theory of Multi-Factor

==E.L. Thorndike argued, that intelligence is a form of relationship neural between the stimulus with the response. This relationship is that direct individual behavior.

  • Theory Primary Ability

==Thurstone divide intelligence into the ability of the primer consisting of the ability of numerical/mathematical, verbal or language, abstraction, in the form of visualization or thinking, decision making, inductive and deductive, recognize or observe, and remember.

  • Sampling Theory

==According to this theory, intelligence is the ability of the sample. This is because the view of Godfrey H. Thomson looked at the world as a collection-a collection of experiences.

  • The Entity Theory

== Intelligence is considered as a unity which is fixed and does not change.

  • Incremental Theory

==This theory assumes, every individual has the potential to be intelligent, and that intelligence can be improved through the learning process.

  • The Multiple Intelligence Theory

== The theory of multiple intelligence was presented by Gardner. According to Gardner, human intelligence has seven dimensions semiotonom, namely linguistic, musical, mathematical logical, visual special, kinestatik physics, social, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Each dimension has the competence of its existence stands its own in the system of neurons. That is not limited to that of an intellectual nature.

===>Based on the explanation above it can be concluded, that intelligence (intelligence) is the ability-the ability possessed by each individual to respond and adjust to the environment, as well as the level of productivity and creativity in solving the problems faced.

So, in the following discussion, we will present the theory of multiple intelligence proposed by Gardner. Because the theory of multiple intelligence is more in touch with the aspects contained in the human self.

Individual Intelligence Tests

The first Individual Intelligence Tests was developed by psychologists Alfred Binet and assisted by students Theopild Simon. Binet and Simon developed the concept of mental age (MA) or mental age namely the level of development of the individual associated with the development of the other.

Shortly thereafter, William Stern created the concept of Intelligence Quotient (IQ), namely the age of the person's mental divided by chronological age multiplied by 100. If mental age is equal with chronological age, then IQ is the same as 100.

If the mental age of a person is more than chronological age, then IQ people it is more than 100. If the age of the mentally less than the chronological age, then IQ people it will be less than 100. Test Binet is further revised and the last revision which until now is widely used to measure the intelligence of students is Stanford-Binet.

In addition to the Stanford-Binet Scale, other tests that can be used to measure the intelligence of a person is the scale of Wechsler developed by David Wechsler. This test is used in addition to show the IQ overall also showed a verbal IQ and performance IQ.

In 1904 the French Minister of education asked psychologist Alfred Binet to devise a method to identify children who are not able to learn in school. Officials about in schools to reduce the school are shortness with how to remove pupils who are less able to learn in a public school to a special school.

Binet and his students, Theophile Simon, devise a test of intelligence to meet this demand. The test was called the scale of 1905. This test consists of 30 questions, ranging from the ability to touch the ear to the ability to draw the design based on memory and define abstract concepts.

  • A test of Intelligence (Binet and Wechsler Test Scale)

 Alfred Binet and Theodor Simon, 2 psychologists of French origin designing an evaluation tool that can be used to identify students who require special classes (children who are less good at). Tool the test was called the Test of Binet-Simon. This test was then revised in 1911.

Binet developed the concept of mental age (MA) or mental age i.e. the mental development of the individual associated with the development of the other. Shortly thereafter, in 1912 William Stern created the concept of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is the mental age of a person divided by the chronological age (chronological age-CA) multiplied by 100. So the formula,

IQ = (MA/CA)*100.

If mental age is equal with chronological age, then IQ people it is 100. If mental age is above chronological order, then-his iq is over 100. For example, a six-year-old child with a mental age of 8 years will have an IQ of 133. If the age of the mentally below the chronological age, then his iq is below 100. Suppose a child age 6 with a mental age of 5 would have an IQ of 83. The following is the classification of IQ according to the Binet:




140 to the top

Very Intelligent

130 – 139


120 – 129

Above average

110 – 119


90 – 109

Below Average

80 – 89

The Boundary line (stupid)

70 – 79


50 – 69


49 to the bottom

In 1916, Lewis Terman, a psychologist from America held a lot of improvements from the test Binet-Simon. Donations its main is to set a numerical index that expressed intelligence as the ratio (ratio) between mental age and chronological age. The results of the improvement of this so-called Sanford Binet Test . The like is actually has been introduced by a German psychologist named William Stern, who later became known as Intelligence Quotient or IQ. Test Stanford-Binet is widely used to measure the intelligence of children up to the age of 13 years.

One of the reactions to the tests of Binet-Simon tests Stanford-Binet is that the test was too general. A figure in this field, Charles Sperman suggested that intelligence not only consists of one factor which the general course (general factor), but also consists of factors that are more specific. This theory is called the Theory of Factor (Factor Theory of Intelligence). - Developed test instrument according to the theory of this factor is the WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) for adults, and the WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children).

The normal distribution is symmetrical, with the majority of scores are in the middle of the range of scores that may appear and there are only a few score who are approaching the end of that span.

The Binet Stanford Test is now done individually for people from the age of 2 years old to adults. This test contains many items some of which require a verbal answer, the other response non-verbal.

The fourth edition of the test the Stanford-Binet published in 1985. One of the important additions in this version is the analysis of individual response in terms of four functions: verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, reasoning abstract visual, and short-term memory. Composite score was used to determine overall intelligence. Test Stanford-Binet is still one of the most widely used test to assess the intelligence of students (Aiken, 2003; Walsh & Betz, 2001).

Other tests used to assess the intelligence of the pupil is called the Wechsler Scale  developed by David Wechsler. This test includes Wechsler Scale for Pre-school and Primary School Intelligence Revised (WPPSI-R) to test children aged 4-6,5 years; Weshsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised (WISC-R) for children and adolescents from the age of 6-16 years; and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) for adults.

In addition to show the IQ of the whole, the scale of the Wechsler also shows the verbal IQ and performance IQ. Verbal IQ is based on 6 sub-scale verbal IQ performance based on the 5 sub-scale performance. This makes the researcher's bias quickly see patterns of strengths and weaknesses in the area of intelligence different disciples (Woolger,  2001).

The following is the Classification according to the Wechsler:



Very Superior

130 to the top


120 –129

Bright Normal

110 –119


90 – 109

Dull Normal

80 – 89


70 –79

Mental Defective

69 to the bottom

Group Intelligence Test

Students can be given group intelligence tests. Tests like these the Lorge - Trondike and test the ability of the school Otis Lennon (Otis Lennon School Ability Test - OLSAT). Group intelligence tests are MORE CONVENIENT AND ECONOMICAL compared to INDIVIDUAL TESTS, BUT HAS some DRAWBACK. When a test is given to large group, the examiner could not establish a relationship, determine the level of anxiety of students and so on.

In the situation of group testing, the students may not understand instructions or may be interrupted by other students. Because of these limitations, while important decisions are made regarding students, group intelligence tests should always be supported with other measures on a student's ability.

It is up to someone needing to carry such of these tests. Knowing the objectives and especially the decisions that can be taken following results in these, it’s better to balance and not victimize students.

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